Environmental Scan - Yukon, Northwest Territories, Nunavut: Spring 2019

Once a year, Service Canada develops Economic/Environmental Scans (E-Scan) that provide a general overview of demographic, economic and labour market conditions and trends. E-scans will be of interest to those who seek to know more about the state of a provincial or regional economy and labour market. Facts and statistics presented in this document reflect information available as of April 2019.

Contents

Highlights

The data table for this graph is located below
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  • Strong economic growth in YK and NU
  • NWT to see steady economic growth in the short-term
  • Nunavut has the strongest population growth in Canada
  • Territories' jobless rate fell to lowest level in 10 years
  • The territories' economic outlook is positive in the short-term; several mega mining and construction projects are slated to begin in the North over the next few years that will provide a boost to employment.
  • Yukon and Nunavut are expected to post strong economic growth in the near-term, as several major mining companies have proposed new exploration and development projects across the two territories.
  • Northwest Territories (NWT) should see some economic growth over the next two years due to the restart of oil extraction at the Norman Wells pipeline.1
  • Service industries employ the vast majority of territorial residents – primarily in the public administration, health care, and educational services industries.

Economic context

Global Outlook: Slowing down amid uncertainties

After a widespread cyclical upswing that lasted almost two years, global economic expansion slowed in the second half of 2018. Escalating trade tensions leading to lower business confidence, weaker than expected momentum in the euro area, tighter credit policies in China, and the normalization of monetary policy in major advanced economies contributed to the slowdown. Weakened global growth is expected to persist partway through 2019 with considerable uncertainties in the short-term.

The International Monetary Fund estimates that about two-thirds of the expected deceleration in this year's global growth will be due to a slowdown in advanced economies.2 While the US remained robust last year with a tight labour market and strong consumption growth, business investment has softened. The temporary boost from US fiscal stimulus, domestically and on its trading partners, is set to wane. In the Euro area, rising concerns of a no-deal Brexit are weighing on investment spending. Nonetheless, global growth is anticipated to improve in the latter part of 2019 and into 2020.3 Many of the world's major central banks are increasingly leaning towards a more accommodative stance and conditions in stressed emerging market economies are gradually stabilizing. Furthermore, China has been ramping up its fiscal and monetary stimulus to offset the negative impact from trade tariffs.

Difficulties in settling controversial issues, such as the US-China trade dispute, pose downside risks to the outlook. Other issues include Brexit negotiations, disagreements within the EU over the Italian budget, and Mexico's new policy direction following a change in administration. On the upside, a resolution of trade tensions could lead to a bounce back in business confidence and strengthen investor sentiment.

The data table for this graph is located below

Source: International Monetary Fund, World Economic Outlook Update, April 2019

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Economic Outlook Projections
2018 2019F 2020F
World 3.6% 3.3% 3.6%
Advanced Economies 2.2% 1.8% 1.7%
Emerging Market
and Developing
Economies


4.5%


4.4%


4.8%


Projected Real GDP Growth
2018 2019F 2020F
Euro Area 1.8% 1.3% 1.5%
UK 1.4% 1.2% 1.4%
Japan 0.8% 1.0% 0.5%
China 6.6% 6.3% 6.1%
Canada 1.8% 1.5% 1.9%
US 2.9% 2.3% 1.9%


Projected Unemployment Rates in 2019
2019
Japan 2.4%
China 3.8%
US 3.8%
UK 4.2%
Canada 5.9%
Euro Area 8.0%

National Overview: Rosier times ahead

In tune with global growth, Canada's economy expanded in 2017 and the first half of 2018 before weakening in the latter half of the year. Rising US trade protectionism, challenges in the oil sector, and falling global and domestic demand have weighed on investment spending. Consumer consumption also slowed as debt growth continued to outpace incomes. Real GDP in Canada is expected to slow to 1.4% growth this year, with some economic weakness lingering from late 2018, before picking up throughout the year and expanding by 2.0% in 2020.4

In the first quarter of 2019, the Conference Board of Canada's Index of Business Confidence dropped to a three-year low of 84.3.5 Although a new trade deal with the US and Mexico was reached last year, the agreement has yet to be ratified; however, this could come easier now that steel and aluminum tariffs have been revoked. US duties on Canadian softwood lumber combined with falling lumber prices and log shortages have resulted in curbed production and sawmill closures. The energy sector continues to face significant transportation constraints. Alberta's oil production cuts have lifted the price of Canadian oil from the record lows last year, but the one-year delay in Enbridge's Line 3 replacement brings new uncertainties on project timelines and investment decisions. Nonetheless, investment spending in Canada's energy sector is expected to rebound in 2020, driven by the development of major projects including LNG Canada in British Columbia. The newly elected Alberta government also has plans to reduce business taxes from 12% to 8% gradually over the next four years to attract new investment.

Outside of the energy sector, firms, especially those in service-oriented sectors, have improved outlooks with intentions to increase capital spending and add workers to meet sustained demand.6 Accelerated depreciation measures introduced in the federal government's 2018 Fall Economic Statement have likely contributed to the higher spending intentions. Meanwhile, residential investment is anticipated to soften as the housing market continues to cool, following government measures aimed at cooling demand as well as five interest rate hikes by the Bank of Canada since mid-2017.

Households are starting to feel the pinch from higher interest rates, especially as they owe a record $1.79 for every dollar of disposable income.7 However, Canada's low unemployment rate8 and high job vacancy rate9 show that tight labour market conditions persist, providing upward pressure on wages10 that could ease the burden somewhat for indebted households. Growth in real personal disposable income is forecast to outpace inflation growth in the near term, resulting in a gain to real incomes.11 Moreover, Canada added 222,000 jobs between January and April this year, the largest share of total employment for this four-month period since 2002, with most of the gains in full-time positions.12 The strong job market along with the growth in income will likely support consumer activity in the coming months.

GDP forecasts for Canada: 2018–2020
3-year average annual growth rates
The data table for this graph is located below

Sources: Canada and the Territories: Conference Board of Canada
Provinces: Average of the 'Big 5' Chartered Banks

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British Columbia 2.1%
Alberta 1.8%
Ontario 1.8%
Québec 1.8%
Canada 1.7%
Manitoba 1.6%
Prince Edward Island 1.5%
Saskatchewan 1.3%
Nova Scotia 1.0%
New Brunswick 0.8%
Newfoundland and Labrador 0.3%
Nunavut* 8.9%
Yukon* 5.0%
Northwest Territories* 2.3%

*GDP for the territories is tied specifically to resource projects



Canada's labour force survey results: 2018 over 2017
The data table for this graph is located below

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey
See Definitions for Participation, Employment and Unemployment

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  • Participation rate: 65.4%; -0.4 percentage points
  • Employment rate: 61.6%; +/-0.0 percentage points
  • Unemployment rate: 5.8%; -0.5 percentage points

Territories' Outlook

Metal extraction (iron, gold, zinc, and copper), diamond mining – and to some extent – oil and gas extraction, are the cornerstones of the Northern economy. However, falling commodity prices, which began in mid-2012, significantly hampered economic growth in Canada's three territories. In mid-2016, global demand for metal and non-metal resources started to rebound. Nunavut's economy grew considerably in 2017 and 2018, while both the NWT and Yukon saw moderate growth.13

In the medium-term, the territories' economy will benefit from major mining developments and construction projects scheduled to begin over the next few years. In addition, federal transfer payments and new mining royalty agreements should keep territorial government budgets balanced, if not in surplus, while many new private-public training agreements will provide employment opportunities for local residents. Moreover, funding from all levels of government for new infrastructure such as roads, community facilities, hospitals and airports will boost employment in a variety of sectors such as construction, transportation and warehousing, and trades.

Yukon

Prior to 2014, GDP growth in Yukon averaged 4.4% per annum over a ten year period. However, Yukon's economy has struggled amid falling mineral commodity prices. The territory's GDP contracted almost 8% in 2015 – the largest decline in the past two decades.

Yukon's economy finally showed signs of strength at the end of 2016 as commodity prices improved. The territory's economy expanded 7% in 2016 and 2.9% in 2017. Moving forward, the territory's economic outlook is bright over the next few years as three new mines are projected to come online. According to the Conference Board of Canada, Yukon's GDP will expand at an annual average rate of 5% from 2018 to 2020.

GDP forecast
The data table for this graph is located below

Sources: 2015-2017 Statistics Canada Tables 36-10-0434-01, 36-10-0402-01; 2018-2020F: Conference Board of Canada, Territorial forecast, released March 12, 2019

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GDP growth rates
Year Canada Yukon
2015 0.8% -7.6%
2016 1.1% 7.0%
2017 3.2% 2.9%
2018f 1.8% 2.9%
2019f 1.4% 2.2%
2020f 2.0% 10.0%
Northwest Territories

The NWT economy performed well over the past few years, posting positive economic growth between 2013 and 2017. Growth in 2017 was driven primarily by the first full year of commercial production at the $1 billion Gahcho Kué diamond mine and by large public infrastructure investments such as the Inuvik-Tuktoyatuk highway project and construction of Stanton Territorial Hospital.

Over the next two years, the territory's economy is projected to grow at an annual average rate of 2.3% – largely due to the restart of oil extraction at Enbridge Inc.'s Norman Wells pipeline.14 Moreover, investments in key public infrastructure projects and low-carbon economy capital initiatives should also help support economic growth in the territory over the near-term.15

GDP forecast
The data table for this graph is located below

Sources: 2015-2017 Statistics Canada Tables 36-10-0434-01, 36-10-0402-01; 2018-2020F: Conference Board of Canada, Territorial forecast, released March 12, 2019

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GDP growth rates
Year Canada NWT
2015 0.8% 1.0%
2016 1.1% 1.3%
2017 3.2% 3.9%
2018f 1.8% 2.3%
2019f 1.4% 2.1%
2020f 2.0% 2.5%
Nunavut

Nunavut's economic fortunes improved considerably since 2016 thanks to higher commodity prices. The territory's real GDP jumped substantially in 2017, up 10.3% from the previous year.

Over the near-term, Nunavut's economy should remain strong due to increasing mineral production, as well as new mine development and construction projects scheduled to begin across the territory over the next few years. For instance, commercial production began at the Agnico Eagle Mines Ltd.'s $1.1 billion Meliadine mine near Rankin Inlet in May 2019. Furthermore, production at another Agnico Eagle gold mine – the Amaruq mine near Meadowbank – is slated to begin in the third quarter of 2019. These two mine projects alone are anticipated to result in significant economic gains for the territory over their estimated 15-year lifespans, including $500 million a year in spending on goods and services.16

GDP forecast
The data table for this graph is located below

Sources: 2015-2017 Statistics Canada Tables 36-10-0434-01, 36-10-0402-01; 2018-2020F: Conference Board of Canada, Territorial forecast, released March 12, 2019

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GDP growth rates
Year Canada Nunavut
2015 0.8% -0.4%
2016 1.1% 3.5%
2017 3.2% 10.3%
2018f 1.8% 10.3%
2019f 1.4% 13.4%
2020f 2.0% 3.0%

Labour Market

The combined employment of Yukon, NWT and Nunavut increased slightly in 2018, up 0.7% to 56,300. All employment gains over the year were due to an increase in full-time employment (+1.5%).

In 2018, the unemployment rate for the combined territories fell to its lowest level in ten years (7.6%). On a yearly basis, NWT was the only territory to see an increase in its unemployment rate (+0.7 percentage points to 7.3%). Meanwhile, both Yukon and Nunavut saw a decrease in their unemployment rate over the year, falling to 2.7% and 14.1% respectively. Yukon continues to have one of the lowest unemployment rates in the country; well below the national rate of 5.8%.

The data table for this graph is located below

Source: Statistics Canada, Labour force characteristics,ESDC custom table

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Territories' unemployment rate declined to 10-year low of 7.6% in 2018, -0.9 percentage points over 2017.

Industry trends

Yukon

The vast majority of Yukon residents work in the services-producing sector; accounting for about 84% of total employment in 2018. The largest industries by employment in Yukon are in non-commercial services, most notably public administration and health care. In 2018, over one-third of the territory's workforce was employed in these industries.

In 2018, the territory's goods-producing sector posted significant employment gains, up 25.9% (+700) to 3,400 from the previous year. Mining and construction – two of the territory's key industries – posted strong employment gains over the year. Projects such as Victoria Gold Corp.'s $370 million Eagle Gold Project, the $320 million Coffee Gold Project and the $2.45 billion Casino gold mine project will boost employment in construction- and mining-related industries over the medium-term.17

In addition, the federal and territorial governments have committed about $360 million for the Yukon Resource Gateway Project that will see improved road access from the Dawson Range in central Yukon to the Nahanni Range Road in Southeastern Yukon.18 Engineering and planning work has already begun on the project and construction is anticipated to start in 2024. Although no specific employment estimates are currently available, the territorial government indicates that there will be contracting and direct job opportunities for local residents and businesses during construction.19

See detailed Yukon industry table.

The data table for this graph is located below

Source: Statistics Canada, Labour force characteristics,ESDC custom table

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Six industries make up 70%
of Yukon employment (000s)
Public administration 3.8
Health Care & Social Assistance 3.6
Trade 2.5
Construction 2.0
Educational Services 1.7
Accommodation and food services 1.4
Northwest Territories

Nearly 44% of the labour force in NWT is employed in the public administration, health care and educational services industries. Other important industries include trade and mining, which combined account for over 17% of total employment in the territory.

Employment in NWT reached 21,400 in 2018, a slight increase from 2017 levels (+100). Employment growth was due entirely to gains in the services-producing sector. The territorial government reported a substantial growth in tourism last year, with over 112,000 visitors travelling to the territory. Visitor spending also increased from $201.4 million in 2017 to $203.4 million in 2018. The territory is on track to reach its target to increase tourism industry revenue to $207 million annually by 2021. A growing number of visitors and increased interest in the North should continue to provide spin-off benefits for the territories' accommodation and food services, transportation, and retail industries.

In an effort to support employment growth in the territory, all levels of government are providing funding for new public infrastructure projects that will help to generate more job opportunities for residents across the territory. For instance, the federal and territorial governments are providing funding to construct a new $9.8 million diesel power plant in Sachs Harbour by 2020, replacing the 43-year-old existing plant. Funded through the federal Arctic Energy Fund, the new plant will generate fewer carbon emissions and will be adaptable to the integration of wind energy in the future.20

See detailed NWT industry table.

The data table for this graph is located below

Source: Statistics Canada, Labour force characteristics,ESDC custom table

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Six industries make up 68%
of NWT employment (000s)
Public administration 5.1
Health Care & Social Assistance 2.7
Trade 2.3
Educational Services 1.6
Transportation and warehousing 1.5
Forestry, fishing, mining, oil and gas 1.4
Nunavut

Like Yukon and NWT, a significant portion of Nunavut's labour force is employed in non-commercial services. Public administration accounted for nearly 26% of the territory's total employment in 2018. Meanwhile, educational services employed almost 12% of the labor force and health care and social assistance represents about 14% of total employment.

The mining and construction industries are also key contributors to the territorial economy. Both industries are the primary catalyst behind the territory's strong economic performance, supporting other vital industries such as transportation and warehousing, professional, scientific and technical services, and trade (wholesale/retail).

The number of people employed in Nunavut increased 0.7% (+100) to 13,500 in 2018. Declining employment in the services-producing sector was offset by gains in the goods-producing sector. Nunavut should see strong economic growth over the next four years due to a boom in the mining industry. Indeed, overall investment in the mining sector is forecast to reach about $1.4 billion this year and will grow by approximately half a billion each year over the next few years. Production at the new Meliadine gold mine and its satellite Amaruq deposit are the main contributors to this projected growth. The territorial government expects output from the mining sector to be the largest contributor of economic growth this year, surpassing government spending for the first time. In the past, government spending made up nearly half of Nunavut's economy; however, this spending has dropped considerably over the last few years and currently sits at around 35%.21

See detailed Nunavut industry table.

The data table for this graph is located below

Source: Statistics Canada, Labour force characteristics,ESDC custom table

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Six industries make up 73%
of Nunavut employment (000s)
Public administration 3.5
Health Care & Social Assistance 1.9
Trade 1.6
Educational Services 1.6
Transportation and warehousing 0.7
Forestry, fishing, mining, oil and gas 0.6

Demographics and Client Outcomes

Population and Migration

The combined population in Canada's three territories reached 123,413 in 2018, an increase of 1.1% (+1,297) year-over-year.

Between June 30, 2017, and July 1, 2018:

  • NWT saw its population decrease 395 to 44,541 people.
  • By contrast, Yukon's population expanded 2.1% (+848) to 40,476 over the year,
  • Nunavut also saw strong population growth (+2.2% to 38,396). In fact, Nunavut had the highest population growth among all Canadian provinces and territories in 2018.

The North has a young population compared to most other jurisdictions in Canada.

All three territories' median ages are younger than the national median age, which stood at 40.8 years in 2018. Nunavut's median age of 26.1 years and NWT's median age at 34.8 years are the youngest across the country, due in part to higher fertility rates and lower life expectancies.22

Even with a younger population, Yukon and NWT still face challenges associated with the baby boomer generation23 approaching and entering retirement age. For example, the proportion of people in Yukon's prime working age group was 44.9% in 2018 – down 3.2 percentage points compared to 10 years ago. Meanwhile, the proportion of seniors (55+ years) in Yukon accounted for 27.3% of the territory's total population in 2018, up 6.8 percentage points from 2008.

See detailed population tables: Nunavut, NWT, Yukon.


Inter-provincial migration

Net inter-provincial migration was negative over the past five years in NWT and Nunavut. This trend is mainly due to a large proportion of residents opting to pursue opportunities in the south where employment prospects are often more plentiful. In fact, the number of residents leaving NWT has increased significantly over the past two years. From 2016/2017 to 2017/2018, over 470 NWT residents left the territory for other parts of Canada, while only 62 people from other provinces relocated to NWT during the same time.

The data table for this graph is located below
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Nunavut's Population in 2018: 38,396
Age groups % share
0-14 yrs 32%
15-24 yrs 16%
25-54 yrs 41%
55-64 yrs 7%
65+ yrs 4%
100%


The data table for this graph is located below
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NWT's Population in 2018: 44,541
Age groups % share
0-14 yrs 20%
15-24 yrs 13%
25-54 yrs 46%
55-64 yrs 13%
65+ yrs 8%
100%

The data table for this graph is located below
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Yukon's Population in 2018: 40,476
Age groups % share
0-14 yrs 17%
15-24 yrs 11%
25-54 yrs 45%
55-64 yrs 15%
65+ yrs 12%
100%

Source for all three territories: Statistics Canada,
Population estimates, Table 17-10-0005-01

Inter-provincial migration 2013/14 to 2017/18
The data table for this graph is located below

Source: Statistics Canada, Table 17-10-0022-01 Estimates of interprovincial migrants

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  • People entering Yukon from other provinces/territories: 7,511
    Yukon residents departing for other provinces/territories: 6,314
  • People entering NWT from other provinces/territories: 8,818
    NWT residents departing for other provinces/territories: 11,065
  • People entering Nunavut from other provinces/territories: 4,474
    Nunavut residents departing for other provinces/territories: 4,923

See detailed migration tables: Yukon, NWT, Nunavut.


The number of people relocating from Nunavut to other regions of the country is also on the rise, though not to the same extent as in NWT. About 4,920 residents chose to leave Nunavut, while about 4,470 people relocated to the territory over the past five years. The vast majority of Nunavut residents relocated to Ontario and Nova Scotia.

Unlike Nunavut and NWT, net inter-provincial migration in Yukon remained positive between 2013 and 2018, with 6,314 people opting to leave the territory and 7,511 choosing it as their new home. This is likely a reflection of Yukon's strong economic performance over the past three years.

Client Outcomes

Indigenous people

Historically, labour force participation among Canada's Indigenous population is much lower compared to the non-Indigenous population, due in large part to lower levels of educational attainment. This is particularly evident in the three territories. According to the 2016 Census, more than half (51%) of the Indigenous population in the territories had no formal education. This compares to 11% of the non-Indigenous population.

In an effort to improve Indigenous participation in the workforce, all levels of government in the territories have increased funding for more skills and employment training initiatives. For instance, the federal government has provided $4.6 million in funding last year to NWT's Gwich'in Tribal Council and $7.4 million to Yukon's Champagne and Aishihik First Nations to help over 300 Indigenous residents to develop new skills and gain work experience through the Skills and Partnership Fund.24

The data table for this graph is located below

Source: Statistics Canada, 2018 Aboriginal Population Profile, 2016 Census

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Unemployment
rates

Indigenous
Non-Indigenous
Yukon 22.3% 5.9%
NWT 19.1% 4.6%
Nunavut 27.6% 3.0%

Participation
rates

Indigenous
Non-Indigenous
Yukon 70.0% 77.0%
NWT 63.3% 84.0%
Nunavut 62.9% 92.2%
Immigrants/newcomers

The immigrant population in NWT and Nunavut grew substantially between 2013 and 2018 – at an average annual rate of 9.4% and 5.3% respectively. This trend is likely to continue, especially in NWT, due in part to new changes to fast-track applications from the Northwest Territories Nominee Program (NTNP).25 According to the NWT Bureau of Statistics, over 250 immigrants arrived in the NWT from other countries in 2018 – the highest number on record for the territory.26

Meanwhile, the number of immigrants arriving to Yukon slowed over the past five years. In 2018, 263 immigrants arrived in Yukon, down from 360 landed immigrants in 2013. That being said, Yukon continues to attract the largest proportion of immigrants among the three territories. In 2018, about 50% of all new immigrants moving to the North chose Yukon as their new home.

Youth

In 2018, youth (15 to 24 years) made up about 18.5% of the population in the North. There are more youth in Nunavut than in NWT and Yukon. In fact, Nunavut has the highest proportion of youth in the entire country.

The reality of a younger population carries both benefits and challenges though. A younger demographic is likely to help the territories alleviate labour market pressures associated with an ageing population. However, youth tend to have a harder time securing a job due to skills mismatches and a lack of professional experience. For instance, the unemployment rate for youth in the territories was 16.0% in 2018, considerably higher than the rate for those aged 25 years and over at 6.1%. Nunavut continues to have the highest youth unemployment rate in Canada (26.9% in 2018) – 14.0 percentage points higher than the prime working age (25 to 54 years) rate of 12.9%.

Youth unemployment rates
The data table for this graph is located below

Estimates for the three territories combined. Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey, ESDC custom table

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Age groups Unemployment rates
15-24 yrs 16.0%
25+ yrs 6.1%
15+ avg 7.6%
Older Workers

A rapidly ageing population is among the major labour market challenges facing Yukon. Older workers (aged 55 and over) made up 23.5% of those employed in Yukon in 2018. Between 2013 and 2018, employment in the 55 and over age group increased by an average annual rate of 4.6%. By comparison, the number of workers in the prime working age group (25 to 54 years) grew at an average annual rate of 1.4% during the same period.

Meanwhile, in Nunavut, employment in the 55 and over age group increased even more rapidly – by an annual average rate of 8.4% – significantly higher when compared to the growth rate for the prime working age group (0.4%).

Although the territories have proportionally fewer seniors (65 and over) than other parts of Canada, they still face the challenge of an ageing population – albeit to a lesser extent than the provinces. In each of the three territories, seniors represent the fastest growing segment of the population, a trend that is expected to accelerate in the coming decades. For example, an increasing number of seniors are opting to stay in the workforce longer in Nunavut where opportunities remain abundant. In fact, the number of people employed in the senior's age group tripled from 200 people in 2013 to 600 in 2018.

Employment rates of older workers
The data table for this graph is located below

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey, ESDC custom table

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55-59 60-64 65+
Yukon 78.6% 65.4% 26.2%
NWT 75.0% 61.9% 27.3%
Nunavut 67.7% 66.9% 33.0%
People with disabilities

About 21% of the territories' population aged 15 years and over and self-identify as having disability, a lower proportion than the national average (22.3%) in 2017.

Yukon has a significantly higher disability rate than NWT and Nunavut. Differences in the prevalence of disability across the three territories is due to varying age compositions and the proportion of youth in Yukon is considerably lower than in NWT and Nunavut. Meanwhile, Nunavut continues to have the lowest disability prevalence rate in the country as the territory has the highest proportion of youth among all provinces and territories.

Disability Rates in 2017
The data table for this graph is located below

Source: Statistics Canada, Canadian Survey on Disability 2017

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  • Yukon: 25.2%
  • NWT: 20.0%
  • Nunavut: 18.2%
  • Canada: 22.3%

Note

In preparing this document, the authors have taken care to provide clients with labour market information that is timely and accurate at the time of publication. Since labour market conditions are dynamic, some of the information presented here may have changed since this document was published. Users are encouraged to also refer to other sources for additional information on the local economy and labour market. Information contained in this document does not necessarily reflect official policies of Employment and Social Development Canada.

Prepared by: Labour Market Information (LMI) Directorate, Service Canada, Northwest Territories, Nunavut and Yukon
For further information, please contact the LMI team

Definitions

Return to National Overview.

See Guide to the Labour Force Survey https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/71-543-g/71-543-g2018001-eng.htm

Labour force: Civilian non-institutional population 15 years of age and over who, during the survey reference week, were employed or unemployed.

Participation rate: Total labour force expressed as a percentage of the population aged 15 years and over. The participation rate for a particular group (for example, women aged 25 years and over) is the labour force of that group expressed as a percentage of the population for that group.

Employment rate (employment/population ratio): Number of employed persons expressed as a percentage of the population 15 years of age and over. The employment rate for a particular group (for example, one defined by age, sex, marital status, or province) is the number employed in that group expressed as a percentage of the population for that group.

Unemployment rate: Number of unemployed persons expressed as a percentage of the labour force. The unemployment rate for a particular group (for example, one defined by age, sex, or marital status) is the number of unemployed persons in that group expressed as a percentage of the labour force for that same group.

Appendix

Yukon detailed industry table. Return to Yukon Industry Trends

Change in employment by Industry in Yukon between 2013 and 2018
2018 2013 % Share
in 2018
Growth
Rate*
Total, all industries (000s) 21.3 19.3 100.0% 2.0%
     Goods-producing sector 3.4 2.9 16.0% 3.2%
          Agriculture - - - -
          Forestry, fishing, mining, quarrying, oil and gas 0.6 0.6 2.8% 0.0%
          Utilities 0.4 0.2 1.9% 14.9%
          Construction 2.0 1.7 9.4% 3.3%
          Manufacturing 0.2 0.3 0.9% -7.8%
     Services-producing sector 17.9 16.4 84.0% 1.8%
          Trade 2.5 2.0 11.7% 4.6%
          Transportation and warehousing 0.8 0.9 3.8% -2.3%
          Finance, insurance, real estate and leasing 0.5 0.8 2.3% -9.0%
          Professional, scientific and technical services 1.0 1.1 4.7% -1.9%
          Business, building and other support services 0.6 0.7 2.8% -3.0%
          Educational services 1.7 1.4 8.0% 4.0%
          Health care and social assistance 3.6 2.5 16.9% 7.6%
          Information, culture and recreation 1.3 1.1 6.1% 3.4%
          Accommodation and food services 1.4 1.2 6.6% 3.1%
          Other services (except public administration) 0.8 0.6 3.8% 5.9%
          Public administration 3.8 4.0 17.8% -1.0%

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey -ESDC custom table
*Average annual compound growth rate in the five years from 2013 to 2018


NWT detailed industry table. Return to NWT Industry Trends

Change in employment by Industry in the Northwest Territories between 2013 and 2018
2018 2013 % Share
in 2018
Growth
Rate*
Total, all industries (000s) 21.4 23.2 100.0% -1.6%
     Goods-producing sector 3.1 4.0 14.5% -5.0%
          Agriculture - - - -
          Forestry, fishing, mining, quarrying, oil and gas 1.4 1.6 6.5% -2.6%
          Utilities 0.3 - 1.4% -
          Construction 1.2 2.0 5.6% -9.7%
          Manufacturing - 0.2 - -
     Services-producing sector 18.4 19.2 86.0% -0.8%
          Trade 2.3 2.8 10.7% -3.9%
          Transportation and warehousing 1.5 1.8 7.0% -3.6%
          Finance, insurance, real estate and leasing 1.0 0.9 4.7% 2.1%
          Professional, scientific and technical services 0.7 0.9 3.3% -4.9%
          Business, building and other support services 0.3 0.5 1.4% -9.7%
          Educational services 1.6 1.9 7.5% -3.4%
          Health care and social assistance 2.7 2.2 12.6% 4.2%
          Information, culture and recreation 1.4 0.8 6.5% 11.8%
          Accommodation and food services 1.2 1.1 5.6% 1.8%
          Other services (except public administration) 0.5 0.7 2.3% -6.5%
          Public administration 5.1 5.4 23.8% -1.1%

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey -ESDC custom table
*Average annual compound growth rate in the five years from 2013 to 2018


Nunavut detailed industry table. Return to Nanuvut Industry Trends

Change in employment by Industry in Nunavut between 2013 and 2018
2018 2013 % Share
in 2018
Growth
Rate*
Total, all industries (000s) 13.5 12.7 100.0% 1.2%
     Goods-producing sector 1.6 1.4 11.9% 2.7%
          Agriculture - - - -
          Forestry, fishing, mining, quarrying, oil and gas 0.6 0.5 4.4% 3.7%
          Utilities 0.2 0.2 1.5% 0.0%
          Construction 0.6 0.7 4.4% -3.0%
          Manufacturing - - - -
     Services-producing sector 12.0 11.3 88.9% 1.2%
          Trade 1.6 1.7 11.9% -1.2%
          Transportation and warehousing 0.7 1.0 5.2% -6.9%
          Finance, insurance, real estate and leasing 0.6 0.6 4.4% 0.0%
          Professional, scientific and technical services 0.2 0.3 1.5% -7.8%
          Business, building and other support services 0.4 0.5 3.0% -4.4%
          Educational services 1.6 1.6 11.9% 0.0%
          Health care and social assistance 1.9 1.2 14.1% 9.6%
          Information, culture and recreation 0.4 0.4 3.0% 0.0%
          Accommodation and food services 0.4 0.5 3.0% -4.4%
          Other services (except public administration) 0.4 0.2 3.0% 14.9%
          Public administration 3.5 3.4 25.9% 0.6%

Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey -ESDC custom table
*Average annual compound growth rate in the five years from 2013 to 2018



Detailed Population table: Yukon. Return to Demographics

Age groups 1998 % of Population 2018 % of Population
0-4 2,140 6.9% 2,322 5.7%
5-9 2,404 7.7% 2,315 5.7%
10-14 2,505 8.0% 2,151 5.3%
15-19 2,248 7.2% 2,140 5.3%
20-24 1,906 6.1% 2,322 5.7%
25-29 2,410 7.7% 2,973 7.3%
30-34 2,684 8.6% 3,414 8.4%
35-39 3,234 10.4% 3,212 7.9%
40-44 3,166 10.2% 2,796 6.9%
45-49 2,733 8.8% 2,838 7.0%
50-54 2,026 6.5% 2,942 7.3%
55-59 1,282 4.1% 3,329 8.2%
60-64 870 2.8% 2,935 7.3%
65-69 657 2.1% 2,001 4.9%
70-74 396 1.3% 1,362 3.4%
75-79 255 0.8% 676 1.7%
80-84 131 0.4% 425 1.1%
85-89 71 0.2% 214 0.5%
90 + 31 0.1% 109 0.3%
Total  31,149 100.0% 40,476 100.0%
Median Age 35.0   37.3  

Prime working-age (25-54 years) proportion of total population
1998   2018  
  16,253 52.2% 18,175 44.9%

Source: Statistics Canada, Population estimates, Table 17-10-0005-01



Detailed Population table: NWT. Return to Demographics

Age groups 1998 % of Population 2018 % of Population
0-4 3,718 9.1% 3,180 7.1%
5-9 4,021 9.9% 3,036 6.8%
10-14 3,535 8.7% 2,889 6.5%
15-19 3,134 7.7% 2,754 6.2%
20-24 3,010 7.4% 3,198 7.2%
25-29 3,803 9.3% 3,709 8.3%
30-34 3,935 9.6% 3,628 8.1%
35-39 3,994 9.8% 3,419 7.7%
40-44 3,318 8.1% 2,997 6.7%
45-49 2,739 6.7% 3,169 7.1%
50-54 1,991 4.9% 3,404 7.6%
55-59 1,223 3.0% 3,177 7.1%
60-64 799 2.0% 2,473 5.6%
65-69 605 1.5% 1,572 3.5%
70-74 422 1.0% 931 2.1%
75-79 256 0.6% 474 1.1%
80-84 160 0.4% 294 0.7%
85-89 80 0.2% 152 0.3%
90 + 59 0.1% 85 0.2%
Total  40,802 100,0 % 44,541 100,0 %
Median Age 29.0   34.8  

Prime working-age (25-54 years) proportion of total population
1998   2018  
  19,780 48.5% 20,326 45.6%

Source: Statistics Canada, Population estimates, Table 17-10-0005-01



Detailed Population table: Nunavut. Return to Demographics

Age groups 1998 % of Population 2018 % of Population
0-4 3,472 13.4% 4,321 11.3%
5-9 3,515 13.6% 4,197 10.9%
10-14 2,783 10.8% 3,696 9.6%
15-19 2,338 9.0% 3,179 8.3%
20-24 2,222 8.6% 3,113 8.1%
25-29 2,514 9.7% 3,357 8.7%
30-34 2,320 9.0% 3,078 8.0%
35-39 1,747 6.7% 2,640 6.9%
40-44 1,320 5.1% 2,158 5.6%
45-49 1,145 4.4% 2,240 5.8%
50-54 873 3.4% 2,207 5.7%
55-59 634 2.4% 1,618 4.2%
60-64 423 1.6% 1,112 2.9%
65-69 271 1.0% 665 1.7%
70-74 142 0.5% 429 1.1%
75-79 82 0.3% 216 0.6%
80-84 42 0.2% 102 0.3%
85-89 29 0.1% 48 0.1%
90 + 12 0.0% 20 0.1%
Total  25,884 100.0% 38,396 100.0%
Median Age 21.8   26.1  

Prime working-age (25-54 years) proportion of total population
1998   2018  
  9,919 38.3% 15,680 40.8%

Source: Statistics Canada, Population estimates, Table 17-10-0005-01



Inter-provincial migration table: Yukon. Return to Migration

Yukon net inter-provincial migration detail, 2013/14 to 2017/18
Region Leaving YK Entering YK Net Migration
Atlantic Provinces -406 483 77
Quebec -209 364 155
Ontario -969 1,400 431
Manitoba -90 248 158
Saskatchewan -260 329 69
Alberta -1,497 1,564 67
British Columbia -2,621 2,445 -176
Northwest Territories -193 575 382
Nunavut -69 103 34
Total -6,314 7,511 1,197

Notes: Annual July 1 to June 30; Data for 2017/18 is preliminary
Statistics Canada Table: 17-10-0022-01 (formerly CANSIM 051-0019)



Inter-provincial migration table: NWT. Return to Migration

NWT net inter-provincial migration detail, 2013/14 to 2017/18
Region Leaving YK Entering YK Net Migration
Atlantic Provinces -1,260 1,268 8
Quebec -352 436 84
Ontario -1,639 2,081 442
Manitoba -310 381 71
Saskatchewan -564 349 -215
Alberta -4,200 2,417 -1,783
British Columbia -1,943 1,354 -589
Yukon -575 193 -382
Nunavut -222 339 117
Total -11,065 8,818 -2,247

Notes: Annual July 1 to June 30; Data for 2017/18 is preliminary
Statistics Canada Table: 17-10-0022-01 (formerly CANSIM 051-0019)



Inter-provincial migration table: Nunavut. Return to Migration

Nunavut net inter-provincial migration detail, 2013/14 to 2017/18
Region Leaving YK Entering YK Net Migration
Atlantic Provinces -1,158 824 -334
Quebec -413 484 71
Ontario -1,671 1,618 -53
Manitoba -307 262 -45
Saskatchewan -138 90 -48
Alberta -415 496 81
British Columbia -379 409 30
Yukon -103 69 -34
Northwest Territories -339 222 -117
Total -4,923 4,474 -449

Notes: Annual July 1 to June 30; Data for 2017/18 is preliminary
Statistics Canada Table: 17-10-0022-01 (formerly CANSIM 051-0019)

Endnotes


  1. Government of Northwest Territories, Budget Address 2019-2020 Northwest Territories, February 6, 2019. https://www.fin.gov.nt.ca/sites/fin/files/resources/2019-2020_budget_address_and_papers_0.pdf↩︎

  2. International Monetary Fund. World Economic Outlook. April 2019. Released April 2, 2019.↩︎

  3. Ibid.↩︎

  4. Conference Board of Canada. Canadian Outlook Economic Forecast: Spring 2019. Released May 1, 2019.↩︎

  5. Conference Board of Canada. Index of Business Confidence: Spring 2019. Released April 26, 2019.↩︎

  6. Bank of Canada. Business Outlook Survey Spring 2019. Released April 15, 2019.↩︎

  7. Statistics Canada. The Daily: National balance sheet and financial flow accounts, fourth quarter 2018. Released March 14, 2019.↩︎

  8. Statistics Canada. Table 14-10-0287-01 Labour force characteristics, monthly, seasonally adjusted and trend-cycle, last 5 months.↩︎

  9. Statistics Canada. Table 14-10-0325-01 Job vacancies, payroll employees, job vacancy rate, and average offered hourly wage by provinces and territories, quarterly, unadjusted for seasonality.↩︎

  10. Ibid.↩︎

  11. Conference Board of Canada. Canadian Outlook Economic Forecast: Spring 2019. Released May 1, 2019.↩︎

  12. Statistics Canada. Table 14-10-0287-01 Labour force characteristics, monthly, seasonally adjusted and trend-cycle, last 5 months↩︎

  13. Statistics Canada, Gross domestic product (GDP) at basic prices: Table 36-10-0402-01, 2015-2017. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/t1/tbl1/en/tv.action?pid=3610040201↩︎

  14. Government of Northwest Territories, Budget Address 2019-2020 Northwest Territories, February 6, 2019. https://www.fin.gov.nt.ca/sites/fin/files/resources/2019-2020_budget_address_and_papers_0.pdf↩︎

  15. Ibid↩︎

  16. Agnico Eagle, Meliadine site visit, September 6, 2018. https://s21.q4cdn.com/374334112/files/doc_presentations/2018/Meliadine-Tour-September-2018_Rev3.pdf↩︎

  17. Conference Board of Canada, Territorial Outlook Economic Forecast, Autumn 2018, November 15, 2018. https://www.conferenceboard.ca/e-library/abstract.aspx?did=9954↩︎

  18. Whitehorse Star, Gateway still expected to wrap up 2025, January 3, 2019. https://www.whitehorsestar.com/News/gateway-still-expected-to-wrap-up-2025↩︎

  19. Government of Yukon, Agreement reached for the Yukon Resource Gateway Project, April 4, 2019. https://yukon.ca/en/nEWS/agreement-reached-yukon-resource-gateway-project↩︎

  20. CBC News, Sachs Harbour to get new diesel power plant, March 04, 2019. https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/north/sachs-harbour-power-plant-1.5042979↩︎

  21. Nunatsiaq News, Nunavut's future looks bring, says territorial government economist, April 4, 2019. https://nunatsiaq.com/stories/article/nunavuts-economic-prospects-look-bright-economist-says/↩︎

  22. Statistics Canada, Canada's population estimates: Age and sex, July 1, 2018. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/daily-quotidien/190125/dq190125a-eng.htm↩︎

  23. Those born from 1946 to 1965.↩︎

  24. Government of Canada News Release, Helping Indigenous people in the Northwest Territories gain vital job skills and experience, January 16, 2018. https://www.canada.ca/en/employment-social-development/news/2018/01/helping_indigenouspeopleinthenorthwestterritoriesgainvitaljobski.html↩︎

  25. Government of Northwest Territories, Changes to the Northwest Territories Nominee Program's Employer Streams, September 17, 2018. https://www.gov.nt.ca/newsroom/news/changes-northwest-territories-nominee-programs-employer-streams↩︎

  26. NWT Bureau of Statistics, Northwest Territories Population – April 2018, June 14, 2018. https://cabinradio.ca/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/April_Est_2018.pdf↩︎

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